Bone marrow and blood
The site of bone marrow is the hollow medullary cavity present inside the bone. The formation of the bone marrow is done by the process of hematopoiesis. The process of hematopoiesis takes place in generally in every bone at an early phase of human life. However with growth this production and the phenomena takes place only in the flat bones. Thus by reaching the adults the phenomena of hematopoiesis takes place mainly from the vertebrae, sternum, ribs and the iliac bones. Bone marrow primarily gives rise to blood cells. They also have the property of stem cells. Stem cells have the unlimited capacity of division giving rise to cells of their own type. It is one of the most active part of the human body that gives rise to about almost 200 billion of red blood cells on a daily basis. Yet there are several diseases that prohibits the bone marrow from converting stem cells into essential working cells.
Bone marrow Transplantation
Bone marrow transplant refers to the procedure when damaged or the non-functional bone marrow due to diseases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy and any other infection. The process of transplantation involves the implantation of new blood stem cells in the bone, where they starts producing new marrow. However this transplantation is very important as it is highly dependent upon the characteristics of the donor and the acceptor. A series of tests are done before transplantation to check the presence of allergic responses in the when transferred into the donor’s body. For a patient having bone marrow difficulty, if gets replaced with healthy cells, it will recharge their body by producing good number of red blood cells, platelets, while blood cells that will help them withstand abnormal bleeding problems, anemic condition, and other infections. This transplantation can takes place either from healthy donor or from the same of the patients. In-case of the of the situation where bone marrow is transplanted from the donor it is highly suggested to isolate the cells in laboratory condition and give chemotherapy or radiation therapy to check for any abnormalities after then, they should be allowed to get transplanted.
The types of bone marrow transplantation include:
- Autologous transplant: here patients get their own bone marrow cells or stem cells taken from either cord blood or peripheral to replenish bone marrow
- Syngeneic transplant: here patients receive from their identical twin
- Allogeneic transplant: here patients receive from their parents, siblings or a donor having HLA identity
- Haploidentical transplantation: by this method the doctors are able to treat a patients having almost none HLA identity.
- Umbilical cord blood: it is an example of allogeneic transplant. The umbilical removed during delivery are cryo- stored. And during need they are removed from the cord for transplantation.
During leukemia, thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, congenital anemia, aplastic neutropenia the doctors go for the bone marrow transplant. To opt for the best bone marrow transplant treatment in India, best doctors need to be consulted at the very onset of the problem.
This transplantation can cure many deadly disease thus giving a life a chance. Therefore expert doctors should be consulted because t reduce its side effects ad allergic reactions.